Several debates in the post-independence period with regard to the administration and welfare of tribal committees led to two major approaches to tribal society. On the one hand, GS Ghurye advocated the principle of assimilation whereby he held that tribal societies were in fact, Hindus who should be assimilated into the Hindu mainstream fold. On the other hand, Verrier Elwin argued that tribal societies had their unique traditions and customs which needed to be preserved. As a result, the present approach of the state has been to preserve the traditions and customs of the trial communities but at the same timeprevent their isolation by introducing policies and schemes for their socio-economic development.
This course is designed to understand Racial, Cultural and Economic Classification of Tribes in India and their challenges, Development and Deprivation. The Constitution of India does not define ‘Scheduled Tribes’ as such. However, Article 366 (25) refers to Scheduled Tribes as those communities who are scheduled in accordance with Article 342 of the Constitution. According to Article 342 of the Constitution, the Scheduled Tribes are the tribes or tribal communities, or part of or groups within these tribes and tribal communities, which have been declared as such by the President through a public notification or through a subsequent amending Act of Parliament.
Adivasis is the collective name used for the many indigenous peoples of India. Adivasis often face hardships and exclusion because of physical remoteness, poverty and prevalent social prejudices. There natural habitats, resources, customs, rituals and traditions are facing a danger of extinct. For their betterment and upliftment, Indian government started many projects and developmental programmes.
Several developmental schemes including Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) were framed and implemented by the Central as well as State Governments and other agencies. These efforts indicate possibilities of substantial change in the living conditions of these groups as they are availing the benefits of several multi-objective programmes.
This course is also relevant for the Understanding Constitutional Safeguards and Tribal Welfare Programmes in India. PESA Act (The Panchayat Raj Act of 1996) promoting self-governance in rural areas through the creation of local village bodies. This legislation has helped Adivasis to formulate responses to various local issues and to organize themselves at a local level by building local political institutions.
WHY THE COURSE/STREAM IS UNIQUE?
The course/stream is unique because it covers important topics on the Indian Adivasi/ Tribes mainly on the thematic issues of “Development Challenges in Tribal Areas and Aspirational Districts”. This course also updates the knowledge about good public policy development for the social and economic Inclusion of the Tribals.
SESSION 1: Ice-Breaking + Introduction + Orientation to the training
1.2: About the Program – Context, Goal, Objectives and Outcome
1.3: Expectations Sharing
1.4: How to Resolve Queries/ Online Discipline
SESSION 2: Tribes in India
2.1: Tribes as ‘Indigenous Peoples”
2.2: Tribal Culture and Indigenous Knowledge
2.3: Studies on Adivasis, Tribals, and Indigenous Peoples in India.
SESSION 3: The Indigenous Colour of India
- Tribes as ‘Indigenous Peoples”
- Tribal Culture and Indigenous Knowledge
- Studies on Adivasis, Tribals, and Indigenous Peoples in India.
SESSION 4: Approaches to Tribal Development
4.1 Based on three models, to conserve, assimilate and integrate
4.2 Approaches – Pre and Post-Independence
4.3 Nehru, A V Thakkar, S C Roy, Elwin
4.1 i. Political approach ii. Administrative approach iii.Missionary approach IV. Voluntary agencies approach v. Anthropological approach.
SESSION 5: Indian Way of Handling Tribal Affairs
5.1 Constitutional Debates
5.2 Constitutional Provisions and Legislative Measures
5.3 Constitutional/Legal Safeguards
5.4 Fifth Schedule
5.5 Sixth Schedule
SESSION 6: Health and Traditional Medicines in Tribes and Gov. Initiative
- 1 Tribal Health in India
- 2 Tribal Health Problems, Disease and Ameliorative Challenges in Tribal Communities
6.3 Traditional Healing Practices and Folk Medicines
- 4 Traditional Medicine and Health care Practices
- 5 Government initiative in Improving Health services for Tribal Population
SESSION 7: Tribal Livelihood, Innovative Practices and Gov. Initiatives
7.1 Agriculture based innovative Tribal Livelihood and best practices
7.2 Forest based innovative Tribal Livelihood and best practices
7.3 Animal husbandry based innovative Tribal Livelihood and best practices Sericulture
7.5 Art and Craft based innovative Tribal Livelihood and best practices
- Government Initiatives in Aspirational Districts
SESSION 8: Problems of Tribal Communities
8.1 Alienation, migration, displacement, rehabilitation,
8.2 Cultural exposure, exploitation,
8.3 Cultivation and agriculture, indebtedness,
8.4 Developmental projects and politicization.
8.5 Deforestation and tribal economy
SESSION 9: Tribal Affirmation Actions
9.1 Alienation, migration, displacement, rehabilitation,
9.2 Cultural exposure, exploitation,
9.3 Cultivation and agriculture, indebtedness,
9.4 Developmental projects and politicization.
9.5 Deforestation and tribal economy
SESSION 10 Fast-tracking growths and economic development of Tribals – Way Forward
10.1 Incremental progress not enough, India needs high jump
10.2 Robust IT Platform & Mobile App
10.3 Monitoring of implementation activities
10.4 GIS integration
10.5 Constant mentoring and handholding of entrepreneurial program is required
10.6 Strengthening of Tribal SHGs by clusterization and establishing Tribal Producer Companies
- Need for Corporate Affairs Division (CAD) for assisting the on-field into Producer Companies